# MacGyver Season 2 Episode 3 Science Notes: Roulette Wheel + Wire

Is there a better MacGyver image than his radio build at the beginning of the episode? I think not. Here is an image.

Could you actually build a radio from a snow mobile? I think yes. Really, radios aren’t actually that complicated. The only difficult part would be building an amplifier so that the signal generated from a voice is powerful enough to be detected by someone’s radio. If the snow mobile had any kind of radio (like for listening), you would have all the parts you would need.

Stun gun on slot machine

They call these hand held zap things stun guns, but they don’t shoot. You just have to hold them up to someone to shock them.

MacGyver needs a distraction so he takes the stun gun and uses it on a slot machine. After that, the guy playing wins.

Is this even possible? Possible, yes. Likely, no. The stun gun has high voltage that creates sparks. These sparks can damage electronic equipment—especially the super tiny transistors in a computer chip. So, it’s possible that the stun gun does something to cause a win.

However, these slot machines are built with tampering in mind. They need to be able to resist humans messing around with them to win. So, I doubt this would work. Also, if MacGyver zaps that outside of the machine it’s probably grounded. This means that the electric current that gets into the case of the slot machine will just go around all the electrical components.

You probably have a better chance of winning on the slot machine than cheating on it.

Iris scanner hack

In order to get through an iris scanner on a door, Jack gets a close up picture of the target’s eye. Then Bozer prints out a fake lens to wear over the eye. Could this work? It’s possible.

In fact, check this out. Someone did the same thing with the Samsung Galaxy S8.

Handheld Cellphone Stingray

A cellphone stingray is a device that acts like a cell tower. Cell phones connect to it thinking that it’s just a tower—but blam, it’s actually another computer.

Of course the details are complicated (which means I don’t really understand them), but you would need some type of antenna. Jack has a tiny antenna in his cuff that has to get close enough to the target’s phone. I think this is plausible. At least it would give Riley a chance to get into the phone and steal some codes.

Magnetic Detector

Also known as a compass. MacGyver is trying to find a magnetic switch for a hidden door. He grabs a bit of metal (hopefully it’s ferromagnetic steel) along with a magnetic bottle opener.

The basic idea is that a metal like steel (most steel) has magnetic domains. When these domains are lined up, the material will act like a magnet. You can line up the domains by rubbing the steel with a magnet. Like this.

If the magnetized steel can float, it will rotate and point in the direction of an external magnetic field—either from the Earth or from that magnetic door switch.

OK, one small issue. In the episode it shows MacGyver rubbing the steel back and forth. You really just want to rub it one way. I think it would still work though. Oh, also many of those magnets like the one on the bottle opener have weird domains. They aren’t just like a plain north and south of a bar magnet, but it still might work.

Vacuum Cleaner Spider-Man

This is awesome (and mostly real).

Here’s how it works. The vacuum cleaner works by pulling air out of a region. If you put a vacuum cleaner over carpet, the air flow goes from the carpet to the vacuum cleaner (basically with just a super powerful fan). When the air moves in this manner, it often picks up other stuff—like dirt.

MacGyver has this vacuum hooked up to some metal tray covers. When the air is pulled from these covers, the air pressure inside the covers decreases. That means that the external pressure (due to the Earth’s atmosphere) will push the covers onto the glass wall.

Actually, this force from the atmospheric pressure can be quite large. The pressure is $10^5\text{ N/m}^2$. So if the pressure inside the covers is just half an atmosphere with a radius of 10 cm, then the net force (for the two covers) would be:

$F = PA=(0.5\text{ N/m}^2)(2)(\pi (.1\text{ m})^2) = 3141 \text{ N}$

That’s some serious force. But wait! This is not the force that supports MacGyver. In fact, it is the frictional force between the cover and glass that keeps him from falling. The frictional force is an interaction between two surfaces that acts parallel to the surface. It depends on two things:

• The types of materials interacting.
• The magnitude of the force that pushes these two surfaces together.

If you push two surfaces together really hard, there will be a greater frictional force. So, this force from the vacuum cleaner exerts a force that increases the frictional force and this frictional force allows MacGyver to climb like Spider-Man.

Here is something similar with a guy that hangs from an overhang with a vacuum cleaner. Pretty cool.

Shrinking metal

This is real (based on something real). Yes, you can actually make metal things smaller. Here is a great video from Physics Girl (Dianna Cowern) that shows how this works.

The basic idea is to create a HUGE electric current very quickly. This large change in current can create a very high change in magnetic fields. When you put metal in this high changing magnetic field, it induces an electric current in the object. This induced current creates a magnetic field that interacts with the external magnetic field in such a way that the device gets squished. It’s awesome. Oh, when I say “a large change in magnetic field”, I am actually talking about the time derivative of the magnetic flux.

So, what do you need to make this coin shrink thing work? You just need super high current super fast. The best way to do this is to charge up some big capacitors and then discharge them through some wires. That’s essentially what MacGyver does.

The biggest problem is his capacitor. He builds one using two roulette wheels. Like this.

Yes. Any two metal devices can create a capacitor—but you want one with a large surface area and very close together. If you turned the two tables around so the flat side was close to the other one, it would be better—but it’s still a capacitor (but not really big enough for this job). Still, the idea is solid.

# MacGyver Season 2 Episode 2 Science Notes: Muscle Car + Paper Clips

What is an EMP?

This is an offensive weapon called an Electromagnetic Pulse (I guess the M is in there too). The idea is to generate a short, but very high intensity electromagnetic wave.

There are all sorts of EMPs, but let’s consider the one that you are mostly likely familiar with—a lightning strike. Have you ever had lightning hit near your house? If you have, you might find that some of your electronic devices no longer work. That sucks, doesn’t it?

Mostly likely what happened was a spike in the electric current in the house. When the lightning strikes, it makes a very large change in magnetic field (associated with the giant current from the bolt). This changing magnetic field can create an electric current.

Check this out. I have a loop of wire and a magnet. As I move the magnet into the loop (or out of it), a current is created.

That’s sort of what happens with your house. But what about the EMP? Same idea—except MORE change in magnetic field. It’s possible to make an EMP that is strong enough to take out the circuits of a bunch of things. Yes, like a plane.

Is it possible to make an EMP that’s handheld? Yes, that’s possible—but it wouldn’t be super strong. Bigger is better.

The THING.

I had no idea that “the thing” existed—at least not until the awesome MacGyver writers told me about it. I read the script and said.

The Thing is a cold war era spy device. It was a passive listening device that the Soviets hid in a wood carving of The Great Seal. You can’t make this stuff up—it’s too real.

The basic device consists of a conducting cavity with a membrane. When a particular microwave frequency is aimed at the device, sound will move the membrane and change the reflected wave. The change in the reflection will be interpreted at sound. This site has a much more detailed explanation.

https://www.cryptomuseum.com/covert/bugs/thing/index.htm

OK, but could MacGyver build one? Yes. Especially in the Phoenix lab. Honestly, I was going to build one for fun. However, it’s tricky to get the size and stuff just right in order for it to work. It would be fun to build a working model though.

Hackable cars.

Sadly, this is all too real. Yes, you can indeed hack a car.

Older cars don’t have computers in them. You can’t hack plain metal and gasoline.

Pacemaker from a phone and an amplifier.

Could you hack someone’s pacemaker? Probably not—but it’s at least possible. My first guess is that you wouldn’t have any type of network connection on your pacemaker, but maybe you would. What if you want to modify how it works without actually taking it out of the human body? In that case, you would have to communicate with the pacemaker somehow—right?

OK, so the dude got hack. He needs a temporary pacemaker. MacGyver takes some paperclips to use as electrodes and connects them to the car’s audio amplifier. He then generates a 1.7 Hertz audio signal with his phone. The idea is that the audio “sound” generates electrical signals that stimulate the heart into work.

Would this actually work? Maybe? Honestly, I wouldn’t want to try this in real life.

# MacGyver Season 2 Episode 1 Science Notes: DIY or DIE

I’m kicking myself. I should have been writing these MacGyver notes for each episode as they aired on TV. But no. I had to make things more complicated. Well, here I am—starting the notes for season 2.

Let’s just jump in. Note: there’s some pretty good stuff in this one.

MacGyver takes a button from his shirt and breaks it in half. From this half button he sharpens the edge so that it can cut through a rope.

I wouldn’t normally include this one in the blog since there’s not much science to talk about—but I’m just excited.

Flare-based harpoon and winch.

MacGyver takes a metal rod and puts it in an empty dip stick tube from an engine. He adds the powder from a road flare to act as a propellant. This would then launch the improvised harpoon forward.

Once the harpoon is stuck into a fleeing car, Mac wraps the cable around the horizontal axle on the sidecar to a motorcycle. As the axle spins, the cable wraps around it and pulls the motorcycle closer to the car.

Mini gun as a starter motor.

They need a car. MacGyver finds one—but it’s missing a starter motor. Really, there is nothing super special about a starter motor. It’s just a DC motor that is strong enough to turn over the engine so that it can turn itself (using gasoline).

The mini gun also uses an electric motor. In this case, the motor spins a combination of gun barrels so that the fire rate can be higher than a normal machine gun.

Could you use one motor for another application? Theoretically, yes. The only tough part might be mounting the motor (which MacGyver does with some wire—wire is often better than duck tape). The other problem is making sure the gears on the motor match up with the gears on the car to turn over the motor—but it’s still possible.

Run up a wall with a pole

Sometimes, there are hacks that look too crazy to be true—but in fact would totally work. Here is an example of such a hack.

MacGyver and friends take a long pole. MacGyver gets on one end near a wall and the other two push the pole towards the wall. This allows MacGyver to walk up the wall.

But wait! Here is a video of this trick being used in real life by a Vietnamese SWAT team.

Here is my super short explanation.

• If you push someone against a vertical wall, there will be a frictional force pushing UP.
• If the push is great enough, this upward frictional force can be equal to the gravitational force.
• Boom. That means a person can walk up a wall.

Here is a force diagram of that situation.

Oh, I also made a video to show you how this works.

Cell phone in a soccer ball.

Ok, you can put a camera in a ball and kick it through a window. Not really much of a hack, but clever.

Improvised diver propulsion vehicle.

MacGyver needs to get through a submerged passage—it’s long enough that he can’t swim the whole way. This means he needs some scuba stuff. In particular, he needs the following:

• Some type of air supply with a regulator.
• A mask and some type of mouthpiece to breath.
• A light.
• A DPV—diver propulsion vehicle.

Please forgive me, but I’m going to go over more detail in this case that you would like. I can’t help it. MacGyver is basically cave diving—this is something that I used to do quite a bit.

Just to show you what that was like, here is an older picture of me. It’s not cave diving, but it’s using all of the same gear (it was practice).

Let’s start with the scuba gear. MacGyver doesn’t have a regular scuba tank, so he uses an oxygen tank used for welding. You don’t normally want to use oxygen for scuba—you want to use air (which is only 21% oxygen). You see, oxygen is actually toxic. If you breath oxygen at high pressure, it can do bad stuff to you. Fortunately, MacGyver is going to use this at very shallow depths—he should be fine. Also, he won’t need to much gas as you consume much more at greater depths (for open circuit systems like scuba).

What is a regulator? Suppose you have a pressurized tank at 1000 psi. You can’t really breath air (or any gas) at that pressure (although there are some tricks—ask me later and I can tell you about this). That’s where the regulator comes in. It takes pressure from the tank and reduces it to the ambient pressure. That’s really important. It has to deliver the pressure at the same pressure around the human. If it was too low, you wouldn’t be able to expand your lungs and breath.

Luckily, they have regulators for welding stuff too. You need a second regulator to let air out only when you breath—but it’s possible to build one of these (they are much simpler).

Now for the DPV. These things are very useful in cave diving. How are you supposed to get 5,000 feet back in a cave if you have to swim the whole way? The early DPV (or scooters as we called them) were essentially trolling motors from a bass fishing boat connected to a battery.

Just about any electric motor with a battery could work. Ideally, the motor should be sealed so it can run underwater—but it doesn’t have to be perfect. It only has to work for a short time.

I really like the scooter in the episode. It really looks like a home built scooter.

OK, you can’t see it too well in that image—just trust me. Or better yet, watch the episode.

I also like how MacGyver side mounts his tank. Even if you have done normal scuba diving, you might be surprised at how these tanks behave underwater. Just because they are heavy out of water doesn’t mean they will pull you down underwater. Very often we would bring extra tanks (stage bottles) in a cave and carry them on our side just like MacGyver did.

Parkour Wall Jump.

MacGyver gets to run up a wall twice in this episode. Just like the wall run with the pole, this case also uses friction. It’s your classic parkour wall run-jump.

If you run towards a wall and push yourself back, there is a force between you and the wall. The faster you run, the greater the force. If this force is great enough, there will be a large enough upward frictional force so that you can get an extra upward jump.

That’s exactly what MacGyver does to get out of the tunnel. Here is a more detailed WIRED post on this wall jump.

# Evolution of a Physics Lab

When I think about the physics labs I teach, I realize things have changed over the past 18 years. The way that I run introductory labs is different than when I first started. Here is a review of my lab philosophy over the years.

I’m going to leave off the labs I taught as a graduate student since I wasn’t really in charge of the lab design.

Phase 1: Mostly Traditional – But With Computers

Really, when you first start off with a tenure track position you have to go with the flow. You can’t jump in and start doing crazy stuff. There are too many other things to focus on (grants, papers, projects…). So, for me—I just took the departmental physics lab manual and started with that. It was pretty traditional.

But I quickly set out on my own. I stopped using the lab manual and made my own labs. Oh, they were still pretty traditional in the format of:

• Here is some physics theory.
• Here are detailed instructions on how to collect data.
• Here are detailed instructions on how to analyze the data.

However, my labs had data acquisition stuff to make it cooler. I found some money to put new (at the time new) iMacs in the room and used Vernier Logger Pro with sensors and stuff. Wait, I actually have a picture of this room from 2003.

Check that out. Those are some classic iMacs. Those suckers were in use for at least 10 years.

There was another important aspect of this “phase 1 lab”. I wanted to have the students work on the following:

• Physics concepts
• Data analysis
• Error analysis (uncertainty)
• Technical writing and communication
• Experimental design.

Note: you can not do this many things. It’s either a 2 or 3 hour lab. At most you could focus on two of these things.

In terms of writing, I think I was making excellent progress on this front. I was working on an idea about peer evaluation of writing. The basic idea is that students evaluate other students writings as a way of helping everyone write better. I still think this is a good idea, but I moved on (because of many issues and other things to work on).

Phase 2: Make Pre Lab Great Again

If you have taught labs, you know that students aren’t always properly prepared. Most faculty know this. They might spend the first 30 minutes of lab time with a lecture to cover the important points. But this still doesn’t work. It’s hard for the students to pay attention and to fully grok the lab. They end up just asking questions about stuff you just told them.

OK—I can fix this. I will just make super awesome lab materials and post it online. Note only that, I will include videos and everything. Students will look at this and then we can just rock and roll during lab.

Nope. That doesn’t work. It doesn’t matter how great the video teaches the concept if students never watch it. In fact, I would find many students watching the video IN LAB. This drives me crazy—mostly because I hate hearing my own voice.

I tried online pre-lab quizzes. That didn’t work. They would just do the bare minimum to get the stuff done before class. It was just a pain in the rear.

Oh, what about pre-lab quizzes in class? Again, those are more trouble than they are worth.

Phase 3: Play and Compete

This one works fairly well. Forget about the pre lab stuff. Drop the lecture at the beginning of lab too. Give the students stuff to play with and see if they can come up with their own questions.

Here is an example in the realm of 1-D collisions.

• Show students the tracks, carts, and different bumper options.
• Tell them “keep the track level”, but otherwise just play with it.
• Students love the magnetic bumpers. Many of them will try collisions between different mass carts.
• After they have played, suggest they try to calculate the kinetic energy and the momentum of the carts.
• Let them come up with their own methods for calculating velocities (I give some options).

That works fairly well. Some students don’t do too much, but for the students that find cool stuff it works great.

Here is another example with a competition. Again, no pre-lab.

• Show students an inertial balance (oscillates back and forth).
• Let them play with it.
• Now for the challenge. Can you use this to find the mass of 4 unknown masses? The quiz at the end of the lab is just finding the mass. Your score is based on your accuracy.

This works fairly well—but not every lab can be in the form of a contest. However, students love to compete and it’s fun.

Phase 4: Free-for-all

This is where I am at now. I don’t expect students to prepare for lab because I will just be disappointed. The labs are a combination of all types of lab. Sometimes they are just verifying an equation. Sometimes they get to build stuff. I don’t expect the lab to match up with the lecture course (because apparently that doesn’t matter).

Sometimes labs still suck, but sometimes they are awesome. I will keep changing my labs until everything is perfect.

Oh, here is a more recent picture of the lab.

This is a video

# Do the MacGyver Hacks Actually Work?

Honestly, this is what I love about working with the MacGyver people. It’s great that they even care enough to bring in a science consultant (that’s me) to look at the MacGyver hacks.

So, I will start off by saying this. Pretty much all of the hacks are at least based on some real scientific idea. None of them are just magic.

In fact, you could go through all the Mac hacks and rate them on a scale from 0 to 10. 10 would be a hack that is one hundred percent legit—totally real. 0 would be magic. Like I said, there are no zero’s that I can recall.

How about some examples from previous episodes with some reality scores?

• Score = 10: Break into a hotel room door using a coat hanger. Basically use a metal wire to reach under a hotel door and pull down the handle. Sadly, this is completely real.
• Score = 9: Use a picture and perspective to triangulate the location of an apartment. This is real, but sort of difficult to calculate. But you could do this.
• Score = 8: DIY dog whistle. It might take some messing around to get it to work just right, but it’s basically legit.
• Score = 7: Hot air balloon for you phone. Yes. You can totally make a hot air balloon. It’s not even hard. The problem is the lifting capacity. If you want to a balloon to lift a phone, it’s going to have to be fairly big.
• Score = 5: Pick a lock with a paper clip. The idea is right, but I really doubt you could use a normal paper clip unless it was a super sucky lock.
• Score = 4: See through walls with wifi. This is based on a real actual thing—however, it would be pretty tough to set it up with stuff you find laying around.
• Score = 3: All the explosions. When you mix two or more chemicals together, bad stuff can happen. Often the effect size is smaller in reality and often the time to set these things up is quite long. Don’t make explosions.
• Score = 2: Disabling a car with some electromagnetic thingy. MacGyver builds some devices to stick under cars to prevent them from starting. Yes, starting a car deals with lots of things working together, so you just have to disrupt one of these things. If you have an electromagnetic oscillation (from the device), it could interfere with the computer or maybe even the spark. It’s a stretch, but it could indeed work.

What about a score of 1 or 0? I’m sure they are out there, but I don’t have any that come to my mind. What about the average score? If I had to guess (apparently I do), I would say a score of 6 would fit pretty well.

# MacGyver Season 3 Episode 17 Science Notes: Seeds + Permafrost + Feather

The Seed Vault is real

It’s basically a giant insurance policy. Suppose something terrible happens and a bunch of crops are wiped out. What then? How do you start over? Yes, you go to the seed bank and withdraw your seeds.

https://www.croptrust.org/our-work/svalbard-global-seed-vault/

Feather to detect air currents

MacGyver pulls a feather out of his jacket and uses this to detect air currents. This should work since the feather will move due to super tiny air motion that would be too small for a human to feel.

This reminds me of a job I once had. The job was to go to people’s swimming pools and find leaks. I would take a small squeeze bottle with red dye and let out tiny amounts into the water to see what would happen. If the red dye got sucked into the wall—there’s your leak. Oh, this was done with scuba gear so that I could stay underwater for long periods of time. It was extremely boring.

Finding position from a smartphone accelerometer

Your phone has an accelerometer (probably). At the very least, this accelerometer is used to determine the orientation of the phone so that it knows if you are taking a normal video or a vertical video (don’t do vertical videos).

This accelerometer is essentially a tiny mass on a spring (but not an actual spring). When the phone accelerates, the spring gets compressed by an amount that is proportional to the acceleration. That’s how you get the acceleration. Once you have the acceleration, you can integrate twice to the get the change in position of the phone (assuming the phone started from rest). If you keep doing this every tenth of a second (or whatever time frame you want), you can track the location of the phone. True.

In fact, if you use the augmented reality (AR) on your phone then you have to use the accelerometer. Your phone figures looks at a surface from different viewpoints to figure out how far away it is. The different viewpoints are determined by the motion of the phone and the accelerometer.

Just because it’s cool—here is my short explanation of AR on the phone.

Toxic Pea

Can you actually make a toxin from a pea seed? Yup. That’s possible. In fact, there are a bunch of things out there in the real world that have some pretty deadly stuff in them. Here are some options.

Directional satellite dish

If you have a normal wifi antenna on your computer (and you probably do), it basically just transmits radio waves in all directions. It’s not a completely uniform signal strength in all directions, but let’s just assume it is.

Imagine these radio waves expanding out and forming a sphere. Since the area of the this radio wave sphere is proportional to the square of the radius, the signal power decreases with distance. That’s just how it works.

But wait! What if you redirect these waves into one direction? That would increase the radio power along that direction and give you a better signal. However, you now have to aim this thing.

There are several methods to make a directional antenna. The two common methods are to use a parabolic dish (like a satellite dish) or a wave guide. The wave guide uses a tube with an antenna located at a certain point. Waves go down the tube and then reflect to constructively interfere and make the signal stronger in that direction.

# MacGyver Season 1

Since I have finally finished my notes for season 1 of MacGyver, I figured I should include all of my notes in one page.

Here are the episodes.

Hopefully I can finish Season 2 before too long.

# MacGyver Season 1 Episode 21 Science Notes: Cigar Cutter

Dirty Bomb

It’s not a Mac-Hack (I assume that’s clear), but let me just explain the difference between a nuclear bomb and a dirty bomb.

A nuclear bomb uses a nuclear reaction to create energy. If you take some large mass element (let’s just say plutonium) and spit it into two pieces, you get some stuff. Obviously you get at least two smaller atoms. But you also get some neutrons and stuff. However, if you added up the mass of all the stuff after the split, it would be slightly less than the mass of the original plutonium. This lost mass is accounted for in energy. Here is the energy-mass relationship.

$E = mc^2$

The “c” is the speed of light. This says that you get a BUNCH of energy for just a little bit of mass and this is the basis for a nuclear fission reaction. For a nuclear bomb, the split creates neutrons that can also split more atoms which produces MORE neutrons and more splits. Oh, the energy and the left over pieces tend to make stuff radioactive.

The dirty bomb also uses radioactive material. However, the main explosion is not a nuclear reaction but instead a more conventional chemical-based bomb. The bomb includes radioactive material that gets spread around from the explosion. It’s dirty. Yes, it’s bad—but it’s not a nuclear explosion. Also, these are pretty easy to make since you just need a normal bomb and some radioactive material.

Parsecs and Time and Distance

Everyone (except Jack) is correct. The parsec is a unit of distance. It has to do with parallax. Here is a simple experiment. Hold your thumb out in front of your face. Now close one eye and look at your thumb. Hopefully there is something in the background that you can line it up with. Now close that eye and open the other one. Notice that your thumb now lines up with something else in the background? That’s parallax.

Wait. You didn’t actually do the eye thumb thing. Really, you should do that.

OK, back to the parsec. The motion of your thumb with respect to the background depend on the distance from your thumb to your face as well as the distance between your two eyes. What if you increase the distance between your eyes? What if this distance is the size of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun? In that case the change in observation locations (on different sides of the Sun) can be used to measure the distance to nearby stars. If a star has an apparent angular shift of 1 second of a degree, that’s a parsec.

The “sec” in parsec is for “seconds of a degree”—not time seconds. Yes, they made a mistake in Star Wars. Here is even more details about measuring distances in astronomy.

Blood Stopping Foam

I don’t know what to call this stuff. MacGyver injects some liquid into Bozer’s knife wound and it sort of seals it up so it won’t bleed. It’s not so much of a hack, but it does appear to be real.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2697428/The-injectable-foam-stop-soldiers-bleeding-death-battlefield.html

It would be sort of like that expanding foam you use to seal cracks around your house—except for blood.

What do fertilizer and explosives have in common? Nitrogen. It’s really interesting if you think about it. The air we breath has a BUNCH of nitrogen in it—79 percent. However, it’s not so simple to get. Once humans figured out how to get the nitrogen, they used it for fertilizer and explosives.

But yeah, you can make explosives from fertilizer—but don’t.

Liquid Oxygen

Yeah, this is bad stuff. Of course it’s cold, but more important is that it’s oxygen. If you want to burn stuff, you need oxygen. Liquid oxygen is WAY denser than gas oxygen. So, if you put this stuff on something you can get a lot of fire.

Check it out.

# MacGyver Season 1 Episode 20 Science Notes: Hole Puncher

Fake Blood

How do you make it look like you killed someone? Fake blood would help. MacGyver mixes up a batch using cocoa mix and some fruit punch.

Here is another recipe.

Fog Machine

MacGyver needs some smoke or something like that so he can elude the bad guys. In this case, he is going to use the water in the pool to make a giant humidifier.

OK, this isn’t smoke. It’s water vapor—water in a gas state. You can see through water vapor, because it’s in the air right now (hopefully). However, when the water vapor condenses out of the air, it makes tiny drops of water. These tiny drops of water reflect light to give a similar appearance to smoke.

But how do you make water vapor from a pool? One way is to use a spinning rod. If you put a rod that spins very fast in the water, some of the water will interact with the spinning rod. If the rod is spinning fast enough, then this water will get “flung” into the air.